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Lonesome George Is Still Giving Us Insights Into The Long Life Of Giant Tortoises

Giant tortoises have been a staple of the Galapagos and can live up to 100 years in captivity. Lonesome George may have been the last of his species, Chelonoidis abingdonii, but he has provided an insight into the genetics of longevity. Genetic analysis of DNA from Lonesome George and samples from other giant tortoises were found to possess a number of gene variants linked to DNA repair, immune response, and cancer suppression not possessed by shorter-lived vertebrates. The tortoises’ slow metabolism and large size tend to correlate well with long life and infrequent reproduction.

Decline Of The Giant Tortoise Population

These large creatures began disappearing after the arrival of humans in the Galapagos since they were hunted for their oil and meat. Two centuries of exploitation caused the loss between 100,000 to 200,000 tortoises. It’s estimated that only 20,000 – 25,000 live on the islands today.

Tortoises tend to move slowly, leaving them open for hunters and breed too infrequently to compensate for the loss. A female tortoise can lay 1-4 nests over their nesting season (June to December). The number of eggs varies but can range from 20-25 eggs for domed tortoises.

This number may seem like a lot but their eggs and young are easy prey for other species like rats and birds. Lonesome George’s species population size has been in decline for about one million years. However, this is expected for a large species confined to a small island that reproduces slowly.

The Secret Of Tortoise DNA

Adalgisa “Gisella” Caccone, the senior researcher in Yale’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and co-senior of the research, began sequencing the whole genome of Lonesome George to study the evolution of the tortoise population on the Galapagos in 2010.

The data was then analyzed by Carlos Lopez-Otin at the University of Oviedo in Spain in order to find gene variants that are usually associated with longevity. He explained that they “had previously described nine hallmarks of aging and after studying 500 genes on the basis of this classification, they found interesting variants potentially affecting six of those hallmarks in giant tortoises, opening new lines of aging research.”

Although the genetics of longevity has been explored in long-lived mammals, extending to tortoises should illuminate general hallmarks of the genetic basis of longevity.

New Lines Of Aging Research

These new details of the giant-tortoise genomes could shed light on aspects of the peculiar evolution and development of tortoises, such as their shell. Duplications of genes involved in DNA repair have also been noted to be related to longevity and exists in not only giant tortoises but also several other species.

However, these lessons about the longevity of tortoises should not be applied to the human species without some form of caution. The longevity of any species is the blueprint of who they are and their entire life’s history. The research surrounding giant tortoises is not over and according to Caccone, “Lonesome George is still teaching us lessons.” It will be interesting to see where Lonesome George will lead us next.

Venezuela’s Humboldt Glacier Is Melting and Will Be Gone in the Coming Years

Glaciers don’t normally make the headline news. But that was before Venezuela’s last glacier is close to disappearing for good, according to a recent report. The country’s Humboldt Glacier in the Andes Mountains is melting at a rapid rate, and it’ll soon be gone before scientists can study the ice particles.

What does this recent report reveal about science?

Plenty Of Ice For Everyone

When Carsten Braun, a geography professor at Westfield State University, visited the Venezuelan Andes in 2009, he was amazed at the glaciers found in the Pico Humboldt, the country’s second-highest mountain peak. He measured the Humboldt Glacier with a GPS, knowing he would one day want his scientific recordings.

Well, he had no idea that day has finally arrived. Braun has visited the glacier several times since 2009, but now he has noticed drastic and upsetting changes in the glacier’s size.

It’s Shrinking

On a recent trip, Braun noticed the glacier is shrinking at a remarkable rate. He noted it looked like “draping a pancake over a slope.” The glacier is now a thin piece of ice no more than 65 feet thick. It would only take someone just one mile to walk around the glacier’s entire circumference.

But why exactly is the glacier shrinking and how soon will it be completely gone?

Sensitive To Climate Change

Climate change is occurring. That is a scientific fact. The debate that rages on to this day stems from those who do not understand the science behind the warming temperatures, melting ice sheets, increased severity of extreme weather events, and so on, while science has shown time and time again that these changes are due to manmade burning of fossil fuels releasing greenhouse gases into our atmosphere at a rate that is unprecedented in the history of our planet.

Venezuela has found itself nestled between this debate. Scientists are comparing the country’s glaciers to others, including ones found in China and Tanzania. But Venezuela’s Humboldt Glacier will be the first one to completely disappear for good due to the drastic changes in the climate’s heat. Glaciers are more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than other environments.

Braun reported, “What we’re seeing now is maybe the last gasp of the Humboldt Glacier.”

Scientists expect the glacier to melt away in the next decade or two.

Why We Should Be Concerned

For the average person, losing a glacier probably isn’t a big deal. We have other glaciers, don’t we? Why are we concerned about Venezuela’s glacier?

Glaciers are more important than what you think. While their contribution to sea-level rise isn’t that significant, glaciers are a critical source of water— for drinking, hydropower, and agriculture purposes. It would be a drastic impact on our environment if we were to lose this valuable resource.

According to researchers, glaciers have been rapidly shrinking in size since the 1970s. Glaciers may have been stronger 30 years ago, but now the majority of them, Venezuela’s Humboldt included, have numerous cracks and meltwater.

“It looks sick,” said Maximiliano Bezada, a former geomorphology professor. “It will die very soon.”

Currently, Humboldt is vulnerable and at its smallest size ever reported. It will disappear very soon, that is an accepted fact. If scientists aren’t watching, the glacier will vanish right before their eyes.

That’s a scary thought, isn’t it?

MORE: This problem isn’t exclusive to the warm, tropical regions close to the Equator. Glaciers are melting at an unprecedented rate even at the coldest place on Earth.

Look Inside This Disney-themed Home On Sale For Less Than $1 Million

Do you ever visit Disney World and wish you could live there? Are you the biggest Disney fan in the world and you wish you could be in your own Disney movie? Maybe you pretended to be a princess when you were younger.

Well, if this describes you, you’re in luck. A Disney-themed house is now on sale in Palm Bay, Florida, for less than $1 million. With exquisite Disney-decorated bedrooms, two elaborate Mickey Mouse-shaped swimming pools, bathrooms, kitchens, and more, this real estate find will be the perfect house where the vacation will never have to end.

Making A Great First Impression With Your Friends

For anyone wanting to live in this one-of-a-kind house, you won’t have to worry about ruining a first impression with your friends. They’ll be amazed once they notice the stained-glass front door featuring Mickey and Minnie Mouse. Your friends will know right away that you’re a serious Disney fan.

Treasure Coast Sotheby’s International Realty

The entryway also features Disney murals on the walls, from the floor-to-ceiling mural of Cinderella at her castle to another mural of Snow White and her forest friends decorating the wall near the stairs. You’re always surrounded by your favorite Disney friends.

Be Our Guest For A Delicious Breakfast

The kitchen may seem basic and small, but don’t judge it too soon. Take a look at the fun mural featuring the main Disney gang, including Mickey, Minnie, Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto.

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The mural is, of course, the main focal point of the room. Every meal will feel like you’re dining with your favorite Disney characters, from a delicious breakfast to a holiday feast. Be our guest, anyone?

Plenty Of Themed Bedrooms

The house has five bedrooms and each one is decorated with a themed mural. For example, one bedroom is painted pink and has a Winnie the Pooh mural. Another room is “under the sea” themed for The Little Mermaid.

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Do you have a favorite Disney character? Chances are there’s a bedroom for that character. Whether you have children or not, you’ll feel right at home.

Six Luxurious Bathrooms

The house has six bathrooms and each one is luxurious with giant soaking bathtubs. One bathroom has a Mickey Mouse-shaped mirror and frosted flowers on the window.

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But if you think this is the last time you’ll see Mickey in the house, you’ll sadly be mistaken. The character’s signature mouse ears are scattered throughout the house. It’s a real-life scavenger hunt in honor of Disney’s icon.

Your Very Own Amusement Park In Your Backyard

While the house is plenty of fun, outside is even more fun. Living in Florida, you’ll be spending more time outdoors. Luckily, you’ll have your own amusement park with this house.

Treasure Coast Sotheby’s International Realty

The backyard features two elaborate Mickey Mouse-shaped swimming pools, a bridge, and a grotto. The yard also includes an eight-acre lot for more fun.

In case you’re ready to make an offer, the house is on the market for $850,000, which surprisingly isn’t that expensive. After all, you’ll be living in a Disney paradise. That’s priceless for the biggest Disney fan.

Treasure Coast Sotheby’s International Realty

In other interesting real estate news, check out this castle in Scotland with hidden caves that have been used for thousands of years.

The Real Reason Why You Can’t Ever Visit Hawaii’s Haiku Stairs

Hawaii is known for its natural beauty. From its gorgeous sandy beaches to the volcanoes and more, tourists (and natives) have many opportunities to get lost in the islands’ breathtaking views.

But there’s one attraction forbidden from tourists, and that’s the Haiku Stairs. Also known as the Stairway to Heaven, this 3,922-step stairwell would be the perfect destination for tourists who wish to see Hawaii unlike ever before.

So, what’s the real story behind these mysterious stairs? And why is it illegal for tourists to visit them?

Originated During World War II

If you haven’t heard about the Haiku Stairs until now, don’t worry. You’re not alone. It’s a hidden gem in history, but the natural site has existed much longer than you might think.

After the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941, the United States Navy built a radio station in Haiku Valley on Hawaii’s O’ahu island. The top-secret plan was intended to enhance military communications, an essential need following the devastating attack during World War II.


But in order to build the radio station, construction workers had to suspend the massive antenna between two mountain walls rising as vertically as possible. With a similar height of 2,000 feet and flat land in between, the Haiku Valley was the perfect location as it created a natural amphitheater to amplify the signal. It would be difficult to climb toward the station; therefore, workers created a stairway to help, which ultimately led to the historic Haiku Stairs.

Offering The Most Gorgeous Views Ever

If you’re lucky enough to gain access to the Haiku Stairs, you will want to spend all day at the site. Nestled between Hawaii’s natural vegetation, adventurers would be surrounded by mango and palm trees, lilies, ferns, and more.

With a view like this, it’s not surprising large groups of tourists would flock to the stairs to see the view for themselves. But not everyone was happy with this sudden increase in popularity.

Closing Down For Safety

The Haiku Stairs first opened to the public in 1975 by the U.S. Coast Guard. But due to immense popularity, the stairs were closed to tourists in 1987 because of vandalism and safety concerns. Many tourists understood the new regulations, but in the age of social media, tourists have wanted to trek to the stairs for the perfect Instagram selfie.

This isn’t safe, which is why the Coast Guard closed the stairs. For example, a 2015 storm left the stairway rugged and dangerous to traverse. The Board of Water Supply works hard to protect the stairs, spending $170,000 per year to place guards on the stairs. If you’re caught trespassing, you could expect a fine of up to $1,000 and a court date. On top of that, local residents have booby-trapped their property to prevent trespassers from reaching the stairs.

Don’t think Hawaiian locals are frustrated with the popularity of the Haiku Stairs. They are, but they would never think of demolishing the stairway. After all, it’s a unique part of history. Instead, locals united to form the Friends of Haiku Stairs, an organization of volunteers who work together to protect the stairs. This is all in hopes of eventually restoring the Stairway to Heaven to its original beauty.

Flying Cars Might Become A Thing, Thanks To Japan

Since Back to the Future Part II was released in 1989, people have always wondered if we could really someday have flying cars. We see them in the old Jetsons cartoons and other films, but could we one day fly around instead of owning automobiles on land?

It seems like an impossible idea, but now, according to the Financial Post, the Japanese government suggests it’s not a far-off idea after all.

The Big Plan

The Japanese government has big plans for inventing the first flying vehicle. Partnering with corporate businesses, including All Nippon Airways, Tokyo’s NEC Corporation hopes to have a flying vehicle invented by the 2020 Summer Olympics hosted in Tokyo.

What’s even better is that the corporation anticipates a vehicle will fly up and light the torch at the Olympics Opening Ceremony.


But there will be many things involved before we start flying around to go grocery shopping at the local market.

The First Test Run

Unfortunately for the Japanese, they haven’t perfected their model for the first flying vehicle. At a demonstration in 2017, the device crashed after it rose slightly above eye level. Considering drivers get in car accidents on the ground, you can imagine how many crashes would occur if we were flying.

Others are skeptical about the project, including Elon Musk, chief executive of electric car designer Tesla. To him, the idea isn’t practical.

“If you want a flying car, just put wheels on a helicopter,” Musk said. “Your neighbors are not going to be happy if you land a flying car in your backyard or on your rooftop.”

Failure Is Not An Option

Despite its failed attempts, the Japanese aren’t giving up on their opportunity to be leading innovators in transforming urban travel.

The goal is to create a car that operates like a flying drone. The craft would be powered by a battery, much like how most small-scale drones are made today. Once they are functional, the vehicles, referred to as EVtol (electric vertical takeoff and landing), would cut down on traffic congestion, parking lot hassles, and reducing emissions into the atmosphere.

Developers are working hard at perfecting the EVtol in order for it never to crash again.

A Chance To Shine

Project head Fumiaki Ebihara has been working to improve the vehicle’s motors and batteries. Japanese government officials are eager the upcoming invention will designate Japan as a leading innovator in global markets.

“This is such a totally new sector Japan has a good chance for not falling behind,” Ebihara said. “Up to now, it was just a dream, but with innovations in motors and batteries, it’s time for it to become real.”

But until then, Ebihara and his team of engineers are working to improve the vehicle’s safety—credited as one of the biggest hurdles in the project.

But if you ask Ebihara, the impossible is possible, and there will one day be flying cars. Just like when vehicles were invented after the horse-drawn carriages, people had to adapt to change. The same will happen now.

Are you ready to fly?

Maybe a more logical step would be getting a car to travel 100 miles per gallon. Here are a few ways we could do that.

The Future For Meat Is Grown In Labs, And It’s Saving The Planet

Recent news broke that scientists have invented “slaughter-less meat.” You can finally eat meat without worrying about the animals slaughtered for the meat processing. Instead, the meat is grown in a lab.

But many people have questions about the new “lab-grown” meat. Will it really help save the planet?

What’s “Lab-Grown” Meat?

You might be asking, “What exactly is ‘lab-grown’ meat? Will it taste just as good as slaughtered meat?”

According to the BBC, scientists have been working on growing meat in a laboratory for decades. But they finally mastered it. Scientists at Just, a food company in San Francisco, California, grew meat from animal cells. The meat is grown in a cultured, synthetic, in-vitro, and clean environment. A protein acts as an enabler for the cells to multiply to grow into edible meat.

If you’re concerned about the taste, taste testers claimed the meat was just as crisp and flavorsome as other meats you would buy at the grocery store. Lab-grown meat might not taste quite like the chicken nuggets you can buy at McDonald’s or Burger King, but it’s pretty close.

There’s no reason why you should turn your nose up at the suggestion to eat “lab-grown” meat, scientists say.

Save The Planet

Considering animals won’t be slaughtered for lab-grown meat, will this help save the planet? That’s the question on many minds since news broke about the scientific discovery. Scientists all agree on one answer: Yes, it will save the planet.

According to a report published by the Worldwatch Institute, 54% of the Earth’s annual global carbon emissions are caused by raising livestock and related activities on farms. In addition, livestock consumes about eight percent of the planet’s valuable water supply. Scientists claim this is an “inefficient use of water.”

But we doubt farmers would enjoy hearing that their practices are harming the planet.

The Plans For Lab-Grown Meat

Seventy billion animals are slaughtered every year for commercial use. That’s a huge number, but lab-grown meat would help eliminate this “unnecessary” act.

Lab-grown meat would remove several steps in meat processing. For example, growing a meat-like substance would be similar to growing plants—completely harmless. Scientists would control the lab-grown, “cultured” meat, instead of farmers watering crops to then feed animals. Now farmers would only need to provide water to animals for survival.

Scientists are also acknowledging that growing meat in a lab would eliminate farmland required to raise cattle. According to The Guardian, the land that could be used for human life is instead occupied by farmers to produce meat.

How Long Before We Have This

Farmers are probably dreading the day when lab-grown meat is commercially popular and made available in restaurants and grocery supermarkets. But the time has come. Just executive Josh Tetrick guaranteed the company’s scientists are working around-the-clock to grow chicken and steak in a safe, clean environment.

Lab-grown meat could be on restaurant menus and in supermarkets as early as the end of the calendar year. Are you ready?

MORE: Why is this necessary? Is eating meat really that bad for the environment?

In A Manipulative Relationship? Try These Simple Psychology Tricks

Many individuals at one time experience a relationship based on manipulation or abuse. These types of relationships add stress to a person’s life. You feel pressured, controlled, and lose your self-confidence the longer you’re in the relationship.

But a recent psychological report explains various psychology tricks you can perform to help cope with these harmful relationships. Use these tricks to protect your body and mind, but also free yourself of the painful relationship.

But First, What’s Manipulation?

A manipulative relationship is more complex than simply “guilting someone into doing something they don’t want to do.” According to Sharie Stines, a California-based therapist who specializes in abusive and toxic relationships, manipulation has many different facets.

“Manipulation is an emotionally unhealthy psychological strategy used by people who are incapable of asking for what they want and need in a direct way,” Stines commented. “People who are trying to manipulate others are trying to control others.”

Manipulators are often aware of their actions. They like to control their significant other, friend, coworker, child, etc., and they use different strategies to convince them that “their way is the right way.” Manipulators can be anyone from an emotionally abusive partner to an arrogant coworker.

The Warning Signs

Here might be the big question on your mind: Am I being manipulated? Sometimes, you might not recognize the signs that you’re in a manipulative relationship.

But according to Stines, if you’re in a manipulative relationship, you feel fear, obligation, and guilt on a daily basis. You feel obligated to do something, even if you don’t want to do it, out of fear of being abused or mistreated. The manipulator often acts as a “bully,” but can also act as a “victim”—suggesting your refusal to listen is hurting them, thus guilting their partners into obliging to their requests.

Other Signs Of Manipulation

You could also be in a manipulative relationship if you find that you regularly question yourself. Also known as “gaslighting,” manipulators get their victims to question themselves, their reality, memory, and thoughts. They might twist your answers and put words in your mouth.

But if you confront the manipulator about this, they won’t acknowledge their action. As Stines commented, “Manipulators blame you. They don’t take responsibility.”

One other large sign of manipulation is when you ask your manipulator for a favor, but a string is always attached. They might buy you something, but then request something else in return. An exception is always involved.

What To Do If You’re In A Manipulative Relationship

No one should be in a manipulative relationship. But there are ways to help. According to Stines, there are various psychological tricks you can bounce back to your manipulator that they will least expect.

For example, establish boundaries. Surprise your manipulator by not agreeing to a demand right away. Avoid making major relationship decisions the first time they’re mentioned. Sleep on the decision, and if the manipulator gets angry, stand your ground.

After all, you have an intelligent mind. You can make your own decisions. Demonstrate this to your partner and show that time is up; you’re not going to be manipulated anymore.

Fart Free If You Want To Be Healthy

Although we’d like to be mature adults about the topic of farting, no one likes to fart in front of other people. Unless you’re related to Shrek, it’s considered to be pretty rude. Social stigma aside, farting is a natural bodily function. The intestines have a valid reason for getting rid of gas, and stopping this natural process could cause health problems.

Why We Fart

Gas is a waste product of digestion. Gas has no nutritional value, so the intestines work to push it out. This gas comes out either as flatulence or belching.

Farts are made of a variety of gases, like sulfur or methane. In addition to not smelling very pleasant, these gases can be poisonous if they build up in large quantities in the body.

What Holding It In Does To Your Intestines

Think of your intestines as a wacky balloon animal that can go on for miles and miles if stretched out. When you put more air in a balloon animal, it expands. When you hold in a fart, your intestines expand. Thankfully, a healthy human doesn’t make enough gas to make their intestines pop.

Holding in farts can cause intestinal distension. This is a fancy word that means the intestines get stretched out. This doesn’t feel very comfortable and it causes the stomach to look big and bloated. Some doctors have hypothesized that that intestinal distension can cause diverticulitis (a chronic illness where seeds and other food particles get stuck in small pockets of the intestines and cause inflammation.) Right now this is just a suspicion, as the exact cause of diverticulitis has yet to be proven.

What If There’s More Gas?

The body has plenty of self-protection mechanisms, so under normal circumstances, your intestines are not going to pop because of gas. That being said, your intestines can produce more gas that can be held inside the intestines. When this happens, the gas either has to go up or out.

When gas is pushed up, it is forced out through the mouth as a burp. This can account for particularly smelly belching, and these types of belches can also be painful. Rather than a normal belch, the gas is forced up through the esophagus. This won’t necessarily cause injury, but it can be uncomfortable.

Gas In The Bloodstream

Gas that doesn’t go down or up goes out through the rest of the body. Gas from flatulence can be absorbed into the bloodstream just as nutrients from food are. When this happens, higher levels of methane and sulfur can be present in the blood. The levels aren’t high enough to be lethal, but this can get dangerous if it’s you’re absorbing this gas into your bloodstream on a daily basis.

While these flatulence-related health risks don’t necessarily make farting in public any less embarrassing, they certainly will help you make a good excuse if you’re bold enough to use it.

Dogs Aren’t As Smart As Their Owners Think They Are

If you’re a dog owner, you likely know that your cherished dog is very, very smartbut scientists don’t necessarily agree with you. Dogs are certainly smarter than a dodo bird, but dogs are not the smartest animals of them all.

Why Did Fido Get An F?

When it comes to smart animals, dogs rank pretty low on the list. Dogs are relatively smart. They can learn tricks. They know when it’s time to eat, and they are experts are pulling on human heartstrings.

That being said, some other animals are way smarter than dogs. Pigs, for example, generally score higher than dogs on cognitive tests. Dolphins and monkies have also been proven to be smarter than dogs.

Comparing Apples To Oranges

Is it really fair to compare dogs to wild animals? For example, dogs are closely related to hyenas, but there is a key difference between dogs and hyenas. Dogs usually live in homes of their human companions while hyenas live in the wild. In some areas, hyenas test as being more intelligent than dogs, but those areas involve skills that only need to be used in the wild.

Dogs might have those skills buried somewhere deep down, but when a skill is not used it is lost. Modern dogs have been domesticated and cared for by humans for several generations, so they are behind the learning curve when it comes to things like hunting. Hyenas would likely score low on showing affection to humans and begging for food.

Out Of Sight Out Of Mind

There are plenty of other animals way smarter than dogs, but we don’t see those animals all the time. Humans live closely with dogs, which makes it easier to observe their intelligence.

We don’t see dolphins, hyenas, or giraffes on a daily basis, so we’re less likely to notice their intelligence. Scientists who study the intelligence of all types of animals are more likely to note the smarts of other animals.

Where Dogs Shine

Dogs have been known to be great problem solvers. For example, many dogs are able to figure out how to free themselves from kennels and other enclosures. Dogs also show great emotional intelligenceas many dog owners know, they seem to be able to tell when humans are feeling sad. With training, dogs can complete tasks that many humans could only hope to do.

Trained service dogs can even discern when their owners are going through a health crisis, such as a seizure or sudden drop in blood sugar. Seeing eye dogs help to guide their blind owners in new environments. Law enforcement dogs can be taught to sniff out drugs and bombs. Dogs that can sniff out a human scent have even been used in recovery efforts to find people trapped under debris after natural disasters. There’s no debating that dogs are amazing. They may not be the smartest animals in the world, but they will always be #1 in our hearts.

Neanderthals Were Skilled Artisans

Neanderthals are often portrayed as dumb cavemen. They were supposedly burly and strong. It has been widely reported that a Neanderthal woman could win an arm wrestler against the strongest men today. It has always been agreed upon that much of Neanderthal life focused on hunting and gathering food, but new archaeological evidence reveals we could have been missing something all along.

What Skeletons Reveal About Muscles

In a living human, muscles are attached to the skeletal bones. As the human moves and uses those muscles, the muscles put a strain on the bones. Over time, this strain changes the shape of the bone, giving bones attached to heavily used muscles a slight curve.

Muscles are connected to bones with tendons. After the human dies, some of those tendons, called entheses, calcify and leave marks on the bones. Based on the size and placement of the entheses, scientists can what sized muscles the person had.

Differences Between Neanderthal Muscles

A study of skeletons of an entire Neanderthal community has led to a new discovery about their lifestyle. Some in the community had huge entheses on arm bones. This suggests that these Neanderthals had huge biceps and forearms.

Big arm muscles would have been developed through tasks requiring brute strength, such as sticking a spear through a large mammal or hauling stones from one place to another. A few Neanderthals studied had large entheses, suggesting large muscles, in a different place.

Were There Neanderthal Artisans?

The hands of a Neanderthal gives even more clues about what his or her day to day life may have been like. Some Neanderthals had unusually big entheses in their fingers and hands. The pinky and thumb muscles of some Neanderthals studied were far larger than that of a modern human.

Scientists believe that some within the Neanderthal community had bigger hand muscles because they did daily jobs that required more precision. Painters, seamstresses, and those who made bricks would have had to focus on making straight lines and getting things done in their daily jobs just right.

Strength Of Neanderthal Hands

Although Neanderthals did make rudimentary tools, their tools were nowhere near as precise as the ones modern humans have access to. Ancient artisans had to compensate for the lack of precision in their tools by being extra precise with their fingers.

As is shown from what they were able to accomplish, the human hand is one amazing tool equipped with far more strength than modern humans usually use.

What Does This Say About Neanderthal Society?

Neanderthals weren’t just a mindless pack of hunters. They had a division of labor. There were some Neanderthals who hunted on a daily basis, while other Neanderthals stayed at the camp. These other Neanderthals made clothes, built homes, butchered the animals that were hunted, and may have even made tools.

Society for these ancient humans depended on people with different skills working together to meet the biggest needs of the community, getting enough food, clothing, and shelter for everyone.